Chronic rhinitis: causes, forms and symptoms
runny nose
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How to treat Chronic rhinitis: causes, forms and symptoms

Chronic Rhinitis  

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Chronic Rhinitis - chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa.

 

Reasons:


Frequently recurring acute rhinitis (including infectious).


     Disorders anatomical proportions in the nasal cavity, for example, bending of the nasal septum which can lead to one-sided hypertrophy turbinate and congenital or acquired defects.


     Prolonged exposure to the nasal mucosa irritants (dust, noxious fumes and odors). In particular, mineral and metal dusts may injure the nasal mucosa, and flour, chalk and other kinds of dust lead to the death of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium and impaired outflow of secretion of the mucous glands and goblet cells. In addition, the accumulation of dust in the nasal passages may be cemented to form nasal stones (rinolity). Fumes and gases may irritate the nasal mucosa and cause its acute and then a chronic inflammation.


     Physical environmental factors are: dry, hot air dries out the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and inhibits the function of the ciliated epithelium, hypothermia leads to reflex changes in vascular tone.


     Local pathological processes in the paranasal sinuses and throat. For example, irritation of the nasal mucosa with purulent diseases of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis, sinusitis), narrowing of the posterior nasal adenoids, sluggish infectious process in chronic tonsillitis.

 
     Allergy.


     Poor circulation in the nasal mucosa in systemic diseases such as hypertension, kidney disease, dysmenorrhea, persistent constipation, alcoholism, endocrine, and nervous disorders. Both household and operating (overly radical or multiple surgery in the nasal cavity). Contributes to the development of chronic inflammation of the nasal cavity nasal foreign body.


     Certain medications (vasodilators used to treat hypertension and nasal drops with vasoconstrictor effect). In particular, long-term burial of nose drops with vasoconstrictor activity leads to irritation of the nasal mucosa and can cause the development of vasomotor rhinitis. Therefore, do not use the drops 5-7 days longer.


Symptoms:

Chronic catarrhal rhinitis

The main symptom is chronic catarrhal rhinitis nasal breathing difficulty, it is usually not constant, can almost fully pass through, and then amplified, for example, winter outdoors by inhalation of cold air. Nasal congestion is generally more pronounced on one side of the nose. For example, if a person is lying on its side, the nasal breathing more difficult, on the side on which a person lies. Nasal discharge is usually moderate, mucous membranes, but may become abundant and purulent in exacerbation of the disease. Sometimes there is a violation of the sense of smell, which is associated with an increase in the amount produced by glands in the nasal mucus.

Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis

About chronic hypertrophic rhinitis say if on a background of chronic inflammation occurs proliferation and thickening of the mucous membranes of the nose - hyperplasia. Overgrown mucosa very difficult nasal breathing and may even make it impossible due to the overlap of the nasal passages. The person thus forced to constantly breathe through the mouth. It is also possible squeezing holes nasolacrimal channels through which the outflow of tear fluid. In this case, there is a constant, in no way connected with the emotional experience watery eyes, inflammation of the lacrimal sac and conjunctivitis. In hypertrophy of the mucous rear arches turbinates (most often in the form of polypoid hypertrophy) may be squeezing the mouths of the Eustachian (auditory) tube, which is accompanied by a high risk of evstahiita (otosalpingita). Nasal discharge usually abundant mucopurulent. Disturbed sense of smell and taste, the voice becomes nasal. Often, patients with hypertrophic chronic rhinitis suffers from headaches.


Chronic atrophic rhinitis

Atrophy - a thinning of the nasal mucosa, which is accompanied by an extension of the nasal passages. Frequently mucosa thins only the inspiratory part of the nasal cavity. In atrophic rhinitis nasal stands viscous mucus, when dry it forms a crust, if they are many - difficult nasal breathing, sense of smell may be violated. Often atrophic rhinitis is accompanied by a feeling of dryness in the nose and throat, itching. When you try to remove the crusts can damage the lining. If the damage is severe, then formed sores, minor bleeding. Violation of the integrity of the mucous often leads to infection. One of the most unpleasant forms of atrophic rhinitis is a chronic ozena or stinking cold. The main reason for its occurrence - infected wounds mucous organism Klebsiella pneumoniae ozaenae. Ozena accompanied by the formation of cavities nosagryazno gray crusts and a sharp unpleasant (sweet, nauseating) smell, as well as significant impairment of the sense of smell. In the nasal cavity imbalance of microorganisms, compounded by degenerative processes, increased dryness and, despite the expansion of the nasal cavity, nasal breathing difficult.
 

Chronic allergic rhinitis

In allergic rhinitis, watery discharge from the nose, the nose there is a feeling of burning, itching, accompanied by bouts of uncontrollable sneezing. Allergic rhinitis can be a year-round (reaction to house dust and mites living in it, tobacco smoke, particles of skin or pet hair, fungal spores, etc.) or seasonal (allergic reaction to the pollen of flowering plants), in which case it is called hay fever.

Chronic vasomotor rhinitis

For this type of disease characterized by a triad of symptoms: paroxysmal sneezing, profuse watery or mucous discharge from the nose and difficulty in nasal breathing. These manifestations are fickle, often occur upon awakening or when a sudden change of ambient temperature on the background of fatigue and stress, with an increase in blood pressure. They are not associated with the inflammation of the mucous membranes or allergic reaction and are a consequence of dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Vasomotor rhinitis often leads to a deterioration of general condition, sleep disturbances.

 

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Information about diseases is presented for reference only. Necessarily consult with your doctor!